Highway 55 and the Camp Coldwater Settlement: An Independent Investigation
8. What Should Happen Now?
The purpose of this report is to assure that the portions of Camp Coldwater in the highway corridor are fully studied and adequately protected. The minimal step necessary for that to happen is a competent and complete survey by a historical archaeologist of the historic literature and of the entire highway corridor from 54th Street to Highway 62. Given the way Mn/DOT and SHPO have both avoided the issue of the Camp Coldwater settlement for years, it seems necessary that such an archaeologist be completely independent of any association with those agencies. Only if this is the case can Minnesotans be assured that their cultural resources have been adequately studied and protected.
A variety of agencies and officials have the power to seek further study of the potential effect of the highway on the historic Camp Coldwater settlement or may the influence to assure that it happens. Judge H. Peter Albrecht or another judge may seek to further revisit Albrecht's decision of January 1999 which as described earlier was based on misleading and unresponsive information provided by the state about the effect of the highway on the historic Camp Coldwater settlement. As noted the information was ultimately supplied by Richard Wolsfeld, vice president of an engineering firm, who was one of the persons primarily responsible for preparing and reviewing the draft and final EIS from the 1980s. Wolsfeld's statement was originally filed in another lawsuit contesting the validity of the EIS in early 1998, but it was also used in the more recent lawsuit. Wolsfeld stated that since the state law defined the Camp Coldwater Historic Site as being within the Fort Snelling Historic District, and "since the Project does not pass through any portion of the Fort Snelling Historic District; therefore it would not also pass through the Coldwater Historic Site" (Wolsfeld 1998).
In terms of the arguments of the plaintiffs in the case, stating that the historic Camp Coldwater settlement had not been examined adequately, Wolsfeld's response missed the point entirely. While it may be the case that under the rules followed by the EIS, the fact of whether the highway passed across park land or a historic site was of primary significance, under the equally important Section 106 regulations that were followed in the recent 1998-99 surveys, a historic property does not have to be designated as a historic site under any state or federal designation nor does it actually have to be on the National Register of Historic Places in order to be taken note of during the process. In the Section 106 process the resource's eligibility for the register is determined during the process itself, not beforehand. In other words the effect of the highway on remains of the settlement is still relevant whether or not they are actually part of the Camp Coldwater Historic Site.
Wolsfeld's statement and its use by state's attorneys completely confuses the issue in another respect. The state law that designated it in 1965 defined the Camp Coldwater Historic Site as a being within the boundaries of the Fort Snelling State Park, not the boundaries of the historic district (Minnesota 1965). As discussed earlier, the Fort Snelling Historic District is an entity designated under the National Register. Its boundaries do actually cross the highway corridor around the interchange with Highway 62, a fact which, significantly, does not appear to have been revealed in the case before Judge Albrecht. On the other hand the boundaries of Fort Snelling State Park are outside of the highway corridor.
This may help explain why when Mn/DOT notified Judge Albrecht of the completion of the Berger, BRW, and Kolb reports on May 3, 1999, state attorney William Sierks made no mention of the effect of the highway on the Fort Snelling Historic District. Instead he wrote
These studies found no evidence of archaeological sites or human remains within the proposed right-of-way for the Project and concluded that the Project will not impact the Coldwater Spring or Camp Coldwater Historic District.
There are many inaccuracies in this statement. First of all the Berger report did deal at length with questions about the Coldwater Spring, but of course there is no such thing as the Camp Coldwater Historic District. And, in any case, as made clear in this report, the Berger and BRW studies made no claim at all about the impact of the highway on Camp Coldwater, as a set of archaeological resources, a historic site or a non-existent historic district. BRW did not claim to be looking for the Camp Coldwater settlement, rather, to "identify archaeological resources within the APE" or Area of Potential Effect of the highway project. Under Section 106 regulations (ACHP 1999, sec. 800.16) the APE is defined as
the geographic area or areas within which an undertaking may directly or indirectly cause changes in the character or use of historic properties, if any such properties exist. The area of potential effects is influenced by the scale and nature of an undertaking and may be different for different kinds of effects caused by the undertaking.
Without explaining the basis for the decision, BRW defined the APE of Highway 55 as being, for the purposes of its study, "the construction limits for the road upgrade and reroute." Clearly under federal regulations this is not the only way the APE could be defined. Scott Anfinson, in a conversation with the author in January 2000 stated that the APE for the highway project included the entire Fort Snelling Historic District. Of course even by its own definition, BRW's shovel testing did not cover the entire APE, because it did not include areas well within the construction limits, such as the northbound lane, the frontage road on the east side of Area 4, the proposed bicycle path, and various ramps. This is yet another reason to call into question the completeness of the BRW study.
All of these confusing and conflicting representations made by Mn/DOT before Judge Albrecht suggest that the judge was not supplied with adequate information for making his decisions. It is clear that the judge was not apprised of the quality of the archaeological survey and the fact that it did not actually look for the remains of the historic Camp Coldwater settlement in the highway corridor. He was also not informed of the cinders found by the geologist Michael Kolb at a point near the property of Joseph Buisson where he made charcoal to sell to other settlers. It is hoped that Judge Albrecht will have the opportunity to re-examine the whole set of issues raised by the plaintiffs in the lawsuit.
The State Historic Preservation Office also has the power to seek further study of the Highway 55 corridor. Given the broad way in which the Highway 55 MOA has been interpreted, a new study of the highway could be requested. Even if the MOA were strictly interpreted to preclude further study of the area of the Camp Coldwater settlement, regulations governing the Section 106 process state that a MOA can be terminated by one of the parties if it determines that the MOA "cannot be carried out." In this case the SHPO could decide that the MOA and the construction monitoring were inadequate for dealing with the potential remains of the historic Camp Coldwater settlement in the highway corridor. This would allow the SHPO to push for a more intensive archaeological survey prior to the construction of this section of the highway.
Another way to handle the Camp Coldwater matter under Section 106 is the set of procedures for handling "post-review discoveries" to be used when "historic properties are discovered during the implementation of an undertaking" (ACHP 1999, sec. 800.13). For these provisions to be implemented, either Mn/DOT or SHPO would have to recognize that they had not fully examined the available evidence including the Smith map. Essentially they would have to admit to mistakes. It is hard to imagine this happening under current circumstances.
Alternatively the Advisory Council for Historic Preservation could intervene in the process, which it has the power to do even at this stage of the construction process (ACHP 1999, Appendix A). The circumstances that can trigger such an intervention are when an undertaking
(1) has substantial impacts on important historic properties
(2) presents important questions of policy or interpretation
(3) has the potential for presenting procedural problems, and/or
(4) presents issues of concern to Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations.
The Highway 55 project presents some or all of these. Clearly the Smith map suggests that the highway could have substantial impacts on the remnants of Camp Coldwater. The written reports compiled by Mn/DOT fail to show that this evidence was considered and demonstrate a flawed archaeological methodology for uncovering such resources. Scott Anfinson of SHPO agrees about the evidence of the map, but insists based on little documentation that nothing is there to be found or that nothing that would be found would be "eligible." His examination of the issues violated the Section 106 process and is completely undocumented in the record.
The fact that the highway surveys consistently failed to consider the impacts on the historic Camp Coldwater settlement at any time earlier in the process and the questionable role of SHPO in carrying on an undocumented investigation that precluded making public any of the information revealed certainly presents important questions of policy or interpretation and the potential for presenting procedural problems. Given the arguments made by the Mendota Mdewakanton Dakota and the fact of their being a Native American component of the Camp Coldwater settlement, the project also presents issues of concern to Indian tribes. For these reasons there is ample justification for the Advisory Council to intervene in the Highway 55 construction.
There are other provisions of the Section 106 regulations that could provide an opening for involvement by the Advisory Council. The act deals at length with what actions may be taken if participants in the process appear to have failed to carry out the requirements of Section 106. For example, "where the Council determines that an Agency Official or a SHPO/THPO has failed to properly carry out the responsibilities assigned under this part, the Council may participate in individual case reviews in a manner and for a period that it determines is necessary to improve performance or correct deficiencies" (ACHP 1999, sec. 800.9.c). There is to ample evidence in the Highway 55 process to suggest that such a case review is entirely warranted.
Ultimately the final power in this matter rests with the people of Minnesota. If we object to the way in which the Highway 55 project has treated our cultural heritage, we have the power to make our objections known to state and federal officials. If the information in this report and the opinions of Minnesotans about the meaning of the evidence are communicated to officials both in Minnesota and Washington, it is still possible that something can be done to protect the resources of the historic Camp Coldwater area.
Whether or not a complete, adequate survey of the portions of the historic Camp Coldwater settlement in the highway corridor, and whether or not actual remains of the settlement are found there, protection of the area is necessary to assure that in the future this rich, important part of Minnesota's history is treated as more than simply a transportation corridor. The construction of Highway 55, of course, would make that task more difficult. State officials appear to have been completely unaware that the historic settlement was actually in the path of the highway. At the same time officials did not acknowledge the importance of the other portions of the settlement in planning for the highway. No cultural resource management plan has been developed for the area, including the portions of the settlement in the highway corridor, those on Bureau of Mines property, and those managed by the Minnesota Historical Society and the Department of Natural Resources. Thus, a highway is being built through a significant historical area by state officials who have not acknowledged its significance, know nothing of the impact of the construction on historic properties in the highway corridor, and have made no plans whatsoever about how to deal with the property in the future.
Ideally the entire area should come under the management of an agency that has an interest in the area's importance. One set of suggestions along these lines was made by Berger & Associates in a draft of the report, but later removed in the final version, apparently at the suggestion of Scott Anfinson. A portion of the Berger recommendations read as follows:
Assuming the Department of the Interior transfers the Bureau of Mines property to the Metropolitan Airport Commission (MAC) as a clear zone, removal of the structures on the property will have no effect on the spring, spring house and reservoir. Documentation of the Bureau of Mines structures determined to meet National Register criteria for eligibility should be conducted to Historic American Building Standards (HABS) standards prior to demolition. Once the property is cleaned up after removal of the buildings, replanting of the site could include native prairie and additional trees, including stands of bur oak which appears to be one of the most common trees in the area. A walking trail which passes the spring pond would provide access from the 54th street area. Management of the property could be by the Minnesota State Historic Society as part of the Ft. Snelling Historic District or by the Park Department. The Bureau of Mines property would make a welcome addition to the park system in this historically rich area and would permanently protect the site of Camp Coldwater and the Coldwater spring for the future. Discussion could also be held with the Veterans Administration regarding transfer of their remaining property east of rerouted T. H. 55 which will remain accessible from 54th street. Acquisition of this area as parkland would provide a substantial recreation area for the residents and visitors.
There appear to have been a variety of reasons why these thoughtful suggestions were taken out of the final Berger report. For one thing, conversations with Minnesota Historical Society officials makes clear that the society does not wish to take over the management of the entire Camp Coldwater area. Although Robert Clouse's survey of the society's own portion of the settlement is still in the works, the society would prefer to see the Bureau of Mines property managed by some other agency. The society's resources continue to be occupied with other projects including Fort Snelling proper. Even with the change in living history interpretation at the fort which in a few years will emphasize the settler and Indian communities outside the walls of the fort around 1838, the heyday of the Camp Coldwater settlement, no plans have been made to use the Camp Coldwater area in this interpretation. The society has, however called for a study of the area to take place at the time of the transfer of the Bureau of Mines Property.
Given the lack of interest on the part of the Minnesota Historical Society it is important that some other agency be found that does have a strong interest in preserving, studying, and interpreting the Camp Coldwater area in a culturally sensitive way. This agency's activities could involve intensive historical study and archaeology and possibly even reconstruction of some of the buildings in the area, so that they could be used to interpret the history of the settlement.
Regardless of which agency takes over the management of Camp Coldwater, it may be advisable that its activities should be broadened to include the entire Fort Snelling area from the Henry H. Sibley House in Mendota to Minnehaha Falls, in a kind of Fort Snelling Historical Park. Such a park could be managed by a commission comparable to the Mackinac State Parks commission in Michigan. Its purview could include the management of Fort Snelling, as well as the Dakota prison camp of 1862, the Indian Agency outside the walls of the fort, the site of the Ojibwe Treaty of 1837, Morgan's Mound on the VA property, and many other neglected and unprotected historic and sacred sites in the Fort Snelling area.
All of these locations were part of what was essentially the
birthplace of Minnesota, a rich, culturally diverse area in which
Indian people, whites, fur traders, missionaries, soldiers, and
settlers came together to create the basis for the state as it
is today. It was the scene of many triumphs and also tragedies,
all of which are important for Minnesotans to remember if their
history is to have any meaning at all. Perhaps the Highway 55
experience will provide the motivation for this period of our
common history to be preserved and commemorated so that it will
not be forgotten.
A great deal of information on the Highway 55 corridor and the history of Camp Coldwater remains unpublished. Below are the sources for this report, including some links to websites where some of them may be found.
Abert, James W.
1853, March 25. "Report of the Survey of the Military Reserve at Fort Snelling," in General Land Office, Selected Document Pertaining to Fort Snelling, microfilm copy BN3.1/G326s, in Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
(ACHP) Advisory Council on Historic Preservation.
1999, May 7. Section 106 Regulations Users Guide. Part 3 Regulations Text. 36 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] 800. This copy of the Section 106 regulations can be found online at www.achp.gov/regs.html. A great deal of information on the current and former Section 106 regulations may be found at this website.
Albrecht, H. Peter.
1999, Jan. 19. Order and Memorandum. Case File No. 98-19859, in case of Jim Anderson, Robert Greenberg, Michael Haney, Garrett Daun, Mendota Mdwekanton [sic] Dakota Community v. James N. Denn; Minnesota Department of Transportation, Robert McFarlin; Mark Dudzick; and Office of the State Archeologist.
n. d. Notes concerning MHS Camp Coldwater site.
 1997, March 22. Notes of visit to Fort Snelling. Though the initial date on these notes is "3/22/97" a later reference is made to a visit to the Camp Coldwater area by MHS staff with Camp Coldwater historian Dave Fudally on "3/10/98." References at the end of the document to the Highway 55 archaeological survey makes clear that these notes are from 1999.
1999, May 4. Minnesota SHPO Archaeological Report Evaluation for BRW report, copy in SHPO files.
1999, May 10. Memo to Dennis Gimmestad, copy in SHPO files.
1999, Aug. 4. Memo to Dennis Gimmestad, copy in SHPO files.
2000, January 3. Conversation with Bruce White and Tim Glines.
1999, April 8. Memo to Britta Bloomberg, Laurie Brickley, and Robert Clouse.
Birk, Douglas A.
1999, June. "The Archaology of Sayer's Fort. An 1804-05 North West Company Wintering Quarters Site in East-Central Minnesota," MA thesis, University of Minnesota.
(Berger & Associates, Inc., The Cultural Resource Group),
John A. Hotopp, Randall W. Withrow, Ingrid Wuebber, Fabio Pittaluga.
1999, April. "A Cultural Resource Assessment of the Proposed Reroute for Trunk Highway 55, 54th Street to County Road 62." A copy of this report may be found online at www.lba-crg.com/projects.htm
1999, April 19. Fax to Dennis Gimmestad, in SHPO files.
Bloom, John Porter, ed.
1969. The Territorial Papers of the United States, 27, Wisconsin Territory (Washington, D. C.: National Archives). Includes, on p. 874, a letter referring to Smith's 1837 map.
1999, May 8. "Hidden Treasure," Minneapolis Star Tribune. An article on the Camp Coldwater area.
(BRW, Inc.) Halvorson, Holly P., O'Mack, Scott, and Penner,
 1998, March. "Phase I Archaeological Survey of the Hiawatha (T.H. 55) Upgrade and Reroute from South 46th Street to C.S.A. H. 62, Hennepin County, Minnesota." Copy in SHPO files.
Buck, Solon J.
1918, June 20, July 3, July 15, July 24. Letters to N. D. Mereness, in Conference of State Historical Agencies of the Upper Mississippi, Records, Minnesota Historical Society.
1927. A Manual for Northern Woodsmen, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. This book contains a good description of the use of the compass in surveying and map-making, including a tables showing the changes in magnetic declination for various points in the United States from 1750 to 1920. For Minnesota, see p. 46.
Clouse, Robert A. and Steiner, Elizabeth Knudson.
1996. "An Archaeological Assessment of Proposed ISTEA-funded development at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. Copy obtained from Robert A. Clouse.
2000, January 10. Conversation with Bruce M. White.
Letter to Brig. Genl. R. Jones, April 10, 1842, in General Land Office, Selected Document Pertaining to Fort Snelling, microfilm copy BN3.1/G326s, in Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
1977. In Small Things Forgotten: The Archaeology of Early American Life. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books.
(FHWA) Federal Highway Administration, Region 5.
1982. "Draft Environmental Impact Statement/4(f) Evaluation and Alternatives Analysis [of T. H. 55 reconstruction]." Copy Minnesota Legislative Reference Library, St. Paul.
1985. "Final Environmental Impact Statement/4(f) Evaluation [for T. H. 55 reconstruction]." Copy in Minnesota Legislative Reference Library, St. Paul.
Fridley, Russell W.
1997, Dec. 24. Affidavit in case of Park River Alliance vs. Frederico F. Pena, et. al. Civil File No. 3-96-985, U. S. District Court, District of Minnesota, Fourth Division. Copy in SHPO files, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
1998, Oct. 18. Letter to Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and Minnesota Department of Transportation. Copy in SHPO files, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
1998? "A Brief History of Camp Coldwater, 'Birthplace of Minnesota,'" online at members.aol.com/dmkerr9/history1.html. Fudally is the community historian for the Camp Coldwater area.
1998, Aug. 1. "Native Americans Relationship to Camp Coldwater," online at members.aol.com/dmkerr9/fudally2.html
1998, March 5. Letter to G. Joseph Hudak. Copy in SHPO files.
1999, May 26. Letter to G. Joseph Hudak. Copy in SHPO files.
Goodman, Nancy and Robert.
1996. Joseph R. Brown: Adventurer on the Minnesota Frontier, 1820-1849. Rochester, MN: Lone Oak Press.
1997, Dec. 29. "Wellspring of Controversy," St. Paul Pioneer Press. A copy of this article may be found online at tcfreenet.org/org/stop55/news/piocoldwater.htm.
1978. "Seventeenth-Century Maps of the Great Lakes: An Overview and Procedures for Analysis," Archivaria, no. 6, summer, p. 83-112.
Heitman, Francis B.
1903. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Contains a biographical sketch of E. K. Smith.
Hudak, G. Joseph.
1999, April 28. Letter to Dennis A. Gimmestad. Copy in SHPO files.
Kolb, Michael F.
1999, March. "Stratigraphic and Geomorphological Investigations Along a Portion of Minnesota Trunk Highway 44, Minneapolis, Minnesota." Strata Morph Geoexploration Report of Investigations No. 20.
Kushner, Jordan S.
1999, Jan. 6. "Plaintiffs' Memorandum in Support of Motion for Emergency Relief," in Anderson vs. Denn, Civil Case File 98-19859, Hennepin County District Court records, Minneapolis.
Mereness, N. D.
1918, June 26, July 12, July 18. Letters to Solon J. Buck, in Conference of State Historical Agencies of the Upper Mississippi, Records, Minnesota Historical Sociey.
1965. Session Laws. See Ch. 779, sec. 7, subd. 7 for first designation of Camp Coldwater as historic site.
1993. Session Laws. See Ch. 181, sec. 2, subd. 6 for revised designation of Camp Coldwater as historic site.
Minnesota Historical Society.
1921, Aug.-Nov. Note on acquisition of Fort Snelling maps, in Minnesota History Bulletin, 4: 174.
1969. Correspondence relating to Smith 1837 map in Accession file 11,074, Archives and Manuscripts.
(Mn/DOT) Minnesota Department of Transportation.
1999, Aug. 20. "Frequently Asked Questions: Hiawatha Corridor Transportation Project," online at www.dot.state.mn.us/metro/construction/hwy55/55faq.shtml
1999, Oct. 6. "Facts and Myths," online at www.dot.state.mn.us/metro/construction/hwy55/facts&myths.shtml
Murphy, Richard T.
1999, April 20. Memo to Executive Council of the Minnesota Historical Society, in SHPO files.
Peterson, Leslie D. and Yourd, William J.
1984. Minnesota Trunk Highway Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey, Annual Report. Minnesota Historical Society.
 1998, Jan. 6. "Defendants' Memorandum in Opposition to Plaintiffs' Motion for Emergency Relief," in Anderson vs. Denn, Civil Case File 98-19859, Hennepin County District Court records, Minneapolis.
1999, April 30. "Notice of Completion of Archaeological Survey and Cultural Resource Study," in Anderson vs. Denn, Civil Case File 98-19859, Hennepin County District Court records, Minneapolis.
Smith, Ephraim Kirby.
1837, October. "Fort Snelling and Vicinity," in Fort Snelling Map Collection, C22, Folder 7, Minnesota Historical Society. The exact location of the original in the National Archives is not known.
1838, March 25. "Map of a Proposed Reservation at Fort Snelling, Minnesota," in Fort Snelling Map Collection, C22, Folder 7, Minnesota Historical Society.
Taliaferro, Lawrence J.
1838. Journal. In Taliaferro Papers, Minnesota Historical Society.
Thompson, J. L.
1839. "Topographical Survey of the Military Reservation, Embracing Fort Snelling," in Fort Snelling Map Collection, C22, Minnesota Historical Society. There are copies of several versions of this map in the collection.
Townsend, Jan, Sprinkle, Jr., John H., and Knoerl, John.
1993. Guidelines for Evaluating and Registering Historical Archeological Sites and Districts. National Register of Historic Places, Bulletin 36. A copy of this and other historical preservation publications may be found online at: www.cr.nps.gov/nr/nrpubs.html
(USGS) United States Geological Survey.
1993. St. Paul West Quadrangle. 7.5 minute series. Map edited 1967, with later revisions. Based on aerial photographs taken in 1947 and 1966.
White, Helen and White, Bruce.
1998, Nov. "Fort Snelling in 1838: An Ethnographic and Historical Study," prepared for the Minnesota Historical Society, Historic Sites Dept. The report can be examined in Historic Sites Dept. files or in the SHPO office. It includes a discussion of settlers in the Camp Coldwater area.
Williams, J. Fletcher.
1983. A History of St. Paul to 1875. Reprint ed. St. Paul: MHS Press. Includes biographical sketches and other information on Camp Coldwater settlers who later became settlers of St. Paul.
U. S. House of Representatives.
1869-70. Executive Documents, 40 Congress, 3 session, vol. 7, doc. 9, serial 1372. Contained in this document relating to the Fort Snelling military reservation are copies of letters relating to Smith's 1837 map.
1998, Jan. 16. Affidavit in case of Park and River v. Alliance, Inc. vs. Pena, copy in Civil Case File 98-19859, case of Anderson vs. Denn, Hennepin County District Court records, Minneapolis.
10. About the Author
Bruce M. White, who has a PhD in historical anthropology from the University of Minnesota and an MA in history from McGill University in Montreal, is the co-author of "Fort Snelling in 1838: An Ethnographic and Historical Study," a report prepared on contract for the Minnesota Historical Society in 1998. This report was designed to provide the basis for an upcoming change in the interpretation at Fort Snelling, a shift in its living history from the 1820s to the 1830s, the heyday of the Camp Coldwater settlement. The report was done in collaboration with his mother Helen White, a veteran historian who did a great deal of research on Fort Snelling at the time of the restoration of the fort in the 1980s. Bruce White's specialty is the early history of native peoples and of white settlement in the Great Lakes region. He has done historical research and writing for the historical society, Mn/DOT, the National Park Service, and the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe. He has published articles in a number of journals, magazines, and books, including the Minnesota Historical Society's magazine Minnesota History. A recent article "The Power of Whiteness: The Life and Times of Joseph Rolette, Jr.," won the Minnesota Historical Society's award for the best article published in its magazine in 1998. Recently, his 1994 testimony in the U.S. v. Mille Lacs, an Indian treaty rights case, was cited extensively by U. S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor in majority opinion in that case. The author drew the maps for Grover Singley's Tracing Minnesota's Government Roads, published by the Minnesota Historical Society in 1974. He is the author of Putting Minnesota on the Map, an account of explorers of the Minnesota region and the maps that they drew, which appeared in 1985 as an entire issue of Roots magazine, a journal for young people formerly published by the Minnesota Historical Society. "Fort Snelling in 1838" also contains a detailed discussion of some maps of the Fort Snelling region, including Smith's 1837 map.
Version: February 7, 2000