6. Medical Ethics

Medical decision-making and end-of-life issues.

'Living Wills' or Advance Directives for Medical Care

Advance Directives for Medical Care:
24 Important Questions to Ask

A brief exploration of 24 open-ended Questions for a comprehensive Advance Directive.

Questions for your 'Living Will'
or Advance Directive for Medical Care

A list of the 24 basic Questions to answer in creating an Advance Directive.

'Living Will' Workshop:
Writing Our Own Advance Directives for Medical Care

Course descriptions (short and long) for a workshop on creating Advance Directives.

Books on Advance Directives for Medical Care
Reviews of several books explaining Advance Directives.

Your Last Year:
Creating Your Own Advance Directive for Medical Care

The table of contents with links to several pages from a book by James Park.

James Park's Advance Directive for Medical Care
One person's comprehensive Advance Directive,
answering each of the 24 basic Questions
50 pages.

Condensed version of James Park's 'Living Will'
One-paragraph Answers to each of the 24 Questions
—4 pages.

Portal for Advance Directives for Medical Care
A comprehensive listing of Internet resources.


When Is a Person?
Pre-Persons & Former Persons

A short essay exploring four criteria of personhood:
consciousness, memory, language, & autonomy.

When Is a Person?
Pre-Persons & Former Persons

A small book on personhood,
exploring the four marks of personhood more completely
—68 pages.

Discussing Degrees of Mental Decline
Applying about 200 questions about personhood
to individuals we know who might be becoming former persons.

Personhood Bibliography
Reviews of several books exploring what it means to be a person.

Health-Care Costs

Nine Ways to Reduce Health-Care Costs
Practical changes we can make to save money on medical care.

Voluntary Rationing of Health-Care
What limits should we set for medical resources we will use?

Medical Futility

Medical Futility Monitor:
Avoiding the Million-Dollar Death

A new medical specialty helping everyone decide when to 'pull the plug'.

Books on Medical Futility
Reviews of several books questioning useless medical care.

Organ Donation

The Dead-Donor Rule:
How Dead Do You Have to Be?

Harvesting organs from:
the brain-dead, the permanently unconscious,
patients in persistent vegetative state, Alzheimer's disease.

The Living Cadaver:
Medical Uses of Permanently Unconscious Bodies

After consciousness has disappeared forever,
the body could be used in medical research and education.

Organ Donation after Execution

Voluntary Execution:
Better than Capital Punishment?

What if a prisoner chose his or her own date of execution?

Can a Prisoner Ever Make a Free Choice?
Ten safeguards to make sure that the choice of execution is really voluntary.

Voluntary Execution followed by Organ Donation
Careful executions could allow prisoners to donate their organs.

Brain-Death as a Method of Voluntary Execution
This new method of execution would be painless for the prisoner.

The Brain-Death Protocol for Voluntary Execution followed by Organ Donation
Once the prisoner has been rendered brain-dead,
organs can be harvested in the usual ways.

Created April 30, 2010; Revised

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