FOR LIFE-ENDING DECISIONS
titles for this website:}
FOR THE RIGHT-TO-DIE
TO PREVENT PREMATURE DEATH
FOR MEDICAL DECISIONS AT THE END OF LIFE
FOR WISE DECISION-MAKING
DECISION-MAKING AT THE END OF LIFE—SAFEGUARDS
TO PREVENT MISTAKES AND ABUSES
THE MEANING OF THE EXPRESSION
decision is any choice that is reasonable expected
to lead to the death of the patient within a few days.
The broader expression "end-of-life choices"
includes all forms of
including attempting to keep the patient alive as long as possible.
Here are five examples of life-ending decisions:
1. increasing pain-medication
with the knowledge
that the drugs will probably shorten the process of dying.
Pain-relief is the primary purpose.
But it should be explained to everyone
that these drugs will (as a secondary side-effect)
shorten the number of days this patient has left.
2. terminal sedation—using
with the intention of keeping the patient unconscious until death
Since an unconscious patient cannot eat,
food and water (provided by any means) are also usually withdrawn.
3. Terminating life-support
—discontinuing all medical
treatments and disconnecting all tubes and
that were intended to treat the disease or condition and/or to keep the
All comfort-care should continue as long as the patient is conscious.
4. Voluntary dehydration
—giving up all eating and
drinking with the knowledge that death will
While the patient is conscious and capable of making medical decisions,
this choice is made by the patient.
When the patient is no longer conscious or capable,
the choice is made by the duly-authorized proxies.
Or the proxies will re-affirm the choice for voluntary dehydration
originally made by
5. Drugs to achieve a
peaceful and painless death.
In Oregon and Washington states, in the United States, and in some
physicians are empowered to prescribe life-ending drugs
for the explicit purpose of bringing an immediate peaceful and painless
Sometimes the patient must take the drugs himself or herself.
Under other regulations, doctors can administer the life-ending drugs.
If you would like to read more extensive discussion
of the first four
legal means, go to:
"Four Legal Means of Choosing a Voluntary Death or a Merciful Death":
How to Die:
Safeguard for the Right-to-Die
This 400-page book explores all dimensions of applying wise safeguards
to end-of-life choices.
Some of the items below have become chapters in this book.
The above link is the table of contents, which links to each item in
This is a
on-line discussion group
open to all advocates of the right-to-die.
the full-spectrum of opinions and suggestions
workable methods for guarding against
and abuses of
some of these suggested safeguards
be embodied in new laws permitting life-ending choices.
In the United States, these will be state laws.
In other countries,
new laws permitting more end-of-life choices
are likely to be national
On January 2, 2007, this Google Group was
Its name is: "Right-to-Die---Safeguards".
And it is listed under: health > medicine.
You can also find it by putting this hyphenated word
into the search
This is an open group, publicly listed and open to all
who wish to join the discussion, from anywhere in the world.
How to join this group:
Send a blank e-mail to the following e-mail address:
will be asked to establish a Google Account
if you do not already have
This is simple to do.
All you need is an e-mail address and a password.
list-managers will reserve the right to control who subscribes:
All points-of-view are welcome.
The pros and cons of each suggested safeguard
should be explored as deeply as possible.
And new alternatives will be welcome.
But if some individuals prove by their contributions
that they cannot engage in a rational discussion of safeguards,
they will be dropped from the group
in order to preserve its original purpose.
Spammers will also be excluded immediately.
(One spammer using two different addresses
has already been dropped and banned.
And other spammers who are using computer programs
attempting to join thousands of groups in order to sell something
are also reguarly excluded.)
JOIN THE SAFEGUARDS GROUP?
THE SAFEGUARDS GROUP
OF GOOD SAFEGUARDS
FOR LIFE-ENDING DECISIONS
OPEN SAFEGUARDS KEPT PRIVATE
CHOSEN DEATHS PER YEAR?
ORGANIZED CATALOG OF PROPOSED SAFEGUARDS
WHICH CAN BE APPLIED SELECTIVELY TO ANY LIFE-ENDING DECISION
OF RIGHT-TO-DIE SAFEGUARDS
COMMON SAFEGUARDS EMBRACED BY THE RIGHT-TO-DIE MOVEMENT
TEN SAFEGUARDS FOR LIFE-ENDING DECISIONS
EMBRACED BY CRITICS OF THE RIGHT-TO-DIE
FOUND IN VARIOUS LAWS AND PROPOSED LAWS
ADVANTAGES OF THE
PREMATURE-DEATH APPROACH TO THE RIGHT-TO-DIE
PROSECUTORS CAN LEAD THE WAY
TOWARD BETTER END-OF-LIFE DECISION-MAKING
PROSECUTOR FOR ENGLAND AND WALES
PUBLISHES GUIDELINES FOR PROSECUTING 'ASSISTING SUICIDE'
ESSAYS RELATED TO SAFEGUARDS FOR LIFE-ENDING DECISIONS
"Advance Directives for Medical
24 Important Questions to Answer"
"Losing the Marks of Personhood:
Discussing Degrees of Mental Decline"
New Way to Secure the Right to Die:
Laws against Causing Premature Death"
A Paradigm for Life-Ending Decisions"
Legal Means of Choosing a Voluntary Death or a Merciful Death":
for Life-Ending Decisions"
"The Number of People Reviewing a Life-Ending Decision
Using the 26 Recommended Safeguards"
"Do I Lose the Right-to-Die
When I Lose Consciousness?"
Will this Death be an "Irrational Suicide" or a "Voluntary Death"?
Will this Death be a "Mercy-Killing" or a "Merciful Death"?
Laws Against 'Assisting Suicide' "
OF BOOKS RELEVANT TO
FOR LIFE-ENDING DECISIONS
on Safeguards for Life-Ending Decisions
on Medical Futility
on Definitions of Death
Books on Voluntary Death
Books on Preparing for Death
on Terminal Care
Books on Helping
Patients to Die
Best Books on
revised several times during November 2006;
revised 1-2-2007; 2-9-2007;
2-23-2007; 5-31-2007; 8-22-2007; 9-2-2007; 12-31-2007;
1-6-2008; 1-22-2008; 2-2-2008; 2-14-2008; 3-1-2008; 8-24-2008;
1-14-2010; 2-4-2010; 5-12-2010; 5-14-2010;
1-19-2011; 2-13-2011; 1-11-2012; 3-4-2012; 4-6-2012
send comments about this website to the webmaster:
Park, e-mail: PARKx032@TC.UMN.EDU
This website is not affiliated with any end-of-life organizations.
Thus people involved in any such organizations are welcome to