AAHPM


The American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine

is an organization primarily of physicians working in end-of-life care.

The following position statement explains what doctors should do

when patients ask for help in dying.

AAHPM neither supports nor disapproves of PAD,

here called "Physician-Assisted Death",

but the same "PAD" could mean "Physician Aid in Dying".

They call this position "studied neutrality".

The following statement was downloaded from their website:

http://www.aahpm.org/positions/suicide.html on March 20, 2007.

No changes have been made in the text.

Only the format has been changed

to make it easier to read on computer screens.




Position Statements

Physician-Assisted Death

Approved by the Board of Directors
February 14, 2007

Background

Suffering near the end of life arises from many sources
including relentless pain, depression,
loss of sense of self, loss of control and dignity,
fear of the future, and/or fear of being a burden upon others.
A primary goal of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (AAHPM)
is to promote the development, use, and availability of palliative care
to relieve patient suffering and to enhance quality of life
while upholding respect for patients' and families' values and goals.

Excellent medical care, including state-of-the-art palliative care,
can control most symptoms
and augment patients' psychosocial and spiritual resources
to relieve most suffering near the end of life.
On occasion, however, severe suffering persists;
in such a circumstance a patient may ask his physician for assistance
in ending his life by providing Physician-assisted Death (PAD).
PAD is defined as a physician providing, at the patient's request,
a lethal medication that the patient can take by his own hand
to end otherwise intolerable suffering.
The term PAD is utilized in this document with the belief
that it captures the essence of the process
in a more accurately descriptive fashion
than the more emotionally charged designation Physician-assisted Suicide.
Subject to safeguards, PAD has been legal
and carefully studied in Oregon since 1997.
In all other states, PAD remains prohibited by law,
although there is an underground practice that remains largely unstudied.

Situations in which PAD is requested are particularly challenging
for physicians and other healthcare practitioners
because they raise significant clinical, ethical and legal issues.

Statement

When a request for assistance in hastening death is made by a patient,
AAHPM strongly recommends that medical practitioners carefully scrutinize
the sources of fear and suffering leading to the request
with the goal of addressing these sources without hastening death.
A systematic approach is essential.

Evaluation of requests:

Initial responses to requests for hastened death:

When unacceptable suffering persists,
despite thorough evaluation, exploration, and provision
of standard palliative care interventions as outlined above,
a search for common ground is essential.
In these situations, the benefits and burdens of the following alternatives should be considered:

Despite all potential alternatives, some patients may persist in their request specifically for PAD.
The AAHPM recognizes that deep disagreement persists regarding the morality of PAD.
Sincere, compassionate, morally conscientious individuals stand on either side of this debate.
AAHPM takes a position of "studied neutrality"
on the subject of whether PAD should be legally regulated or prohibited,
believing its members should instead continue to strive to find the proper response
to those patients whose suffering becomes intolerable despite the best possible palliative care.
Whether or not legalization occurs, AAHPM supports intense efforts
to alleviate suffering and to reduce any perceived need for PAD.

For physicians practicing in regions where PAD is legal,
AAHPM advises great caution before instituting PAD including assurance that:

Whenever PAD is being considered by a patient with his or her physician,
patients should continue to receive the best possible palliative care.
Although many hospice and palliative care practitioners
find it morally unacceptable to participate in PAD even where legal,
neither a person requesting PAD nor his family should be deprived of
any other measure of ongoing palliative care during the dying process and period of bereavement.
The most essential response to the request for PAD in the practice of palliative care
is to attempt to clearly understand the request,
to intensify palliative care treatments with the intent to relieve suffering,
and to search with the patient for mutually acceptable approaches
 without violating any party's fundamental values.

References

Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Fourth ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994

Block SD, Billings JA. Patient requests to hasten death: Evaluation and management in terminal care. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154:2039-2047.

Foley K, Hendin H, eds., The Case Against Assisted Suicide: For the Right to End-of-Life Care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

www.egov.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/pas/index.shtml

Meier DE, Emmons C, Wallenstein S, Quill TE, Morrison RS CC. A national survey of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:1193-1201.

Okie S, "Physician-Assisted Suicide-Oregon and Beyond." NEJM 2005; 352 (16):1627-1630.

Quill TE, Battin MP.eds. Physician-Assisted Dying, The Case for Palliative Care and Patient Choice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

Quill TE, Byock I. Responding to intractable terminal suffering: the role of terminal sedation and voluntary refusal of food and fluids. ACP-ASIM End-of-Life Care Consensus Panel. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132:408-414.

Quill TE, Cassel CK. Professional organizations' position statements on physician-assisted suicide: a case for studied neutrality. Annals of Internal Medicine 2003; 138(3):208-11.




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