University of Minnesota

   Online Grammar 
  Handbook
, 2012 Edition

   OnlineGrammar.org - myOGH.org

             

                   

                                  

                                      

21 Chapters of Links about College Writing and Research with Videos, Literature, Arguments, and Sample Papers

Long Table of Contents

    

WritingforCollege.org

                       

 Short Table of Contents                

                           

Click on the chapter you want.

                                               

          

A. GETTING STARTED
       1. About This Site 
       2
. Process & Focus 
       3
. How to Think & Read in College 
       4
. Literature, Reading, & Writing

BIG problem?

          

B. UNITS OF ENGLISH

       5. Choosing Words 

       6. Making Sentences 

       7. Organizing and Paragraphs

Bibliography
makers

    

C. MECHANICS OF EDITING
    
  8. General Editing 

       9. Spelling 

     10. Punctuation

     11. Grammar Guides

Perfect
papers?

          

D. FINDING HELP ONLINE
   
 12. Types of Papers--Directions & Samples 

     13. Help for ESL/NNS/TESOL

     14. Online Arguments, Books, & News 

     15. Writing Textbooks & Tutors

Why this hand-
book works well

          

Student at Computer

E. RESEARCH & BIBLIOGRAPHIES
    
16. Research Writing, Plagiarism, & Samples   

     17. Citation & Documentation (MLA, APA, et al.)  

     18. References & Research Resources

Are you a
"college writer"?

          

F. DISCIPLINES & PROFESSIONS
 
    19. Visual & Multimodal Design

     20. Writing in Majors, Disciplines, Professions   

     21. Job/School Applications, Resumes, Covers

Students' Papers:
See Ch.
12., 16., 20., & 21.

  

This site is housed at the University of Minnesota. 
It also can be found at "OnlineGrammar.org" and "GrammarBook.org."  

             
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Long Table of Contents (below)
21 Chapters with Descriptions of Each
(In Six Major Sections, A.-F.)
 
                   

                               

Section A., four chapters
GETTING STARTED
Steps, Focus, How to Think and Read,  and Literature

                                       
Each chapter is a list of links:

  1. Introduction: About This Web Site

  2. Process & Focus: Focusing, Freewriting, Revising, and Peer Reviewing

  3. How to Think & Read in College: How Both Relate to Writing

  4. Literature, Reading, & Writing: Definitions, Studying and Writing about Literature, and Free Online Literary Readings

                                        

Section B., three chapters
UNITS OF ENGLISH
Using Words, Sentences, and Paragraphs
    

                                       
Each chapter is a list of links:

  1. Choosing Words: Types of Words, Homonyms, Synonyms, Antonyms, Commonly Misused Words, etc.

  2. Making Sentences: How to Define, Create, and Edit a Sentence

  3. Organizing & Paragraphs: How to Develop Organization and Thoughts through Paragraphs

                                        

Section C., four chapters
MECHANICS OF EDITING
Editing, Spelling, Punctuation, and Grammar

                               
Each chapter is a list of links:

  1. General Editing Concerns: Proofreading and General Editing Guides

  2. Spelling: Commonly Misspelled Words, Spelling Patterns, and Other Common Spelling Problems

  3. Punctuation: How to Use Commas, Quotation Marks, Apostrophes, Colons, Semicolons, etc.

  4. Grammar Guides: Full Online Guides and Books about Verbs, Nouns, Agreement, Number, etc.
                        

    See also "Ch. 15: Online Writing Textbooks" for online books on general writing.

                                        

Section D., four chapters
FINDING HELP
Samples, ESL/NNS, Tutors, and Textbooks
   

                               
Each chapter is a list of links:

  1. Basic Types of College Papers--Directions & Samples: Dozens of Introductory-level College Papers Explained 
                        
    See also "Ch. 20: Writing in Majors, Disciplines, & Professions" for papers in specific disciplines or professions.
              
    See also "Ch 21:
    Job/School Applications, Resumes, & Cover Letters" for applications, resumes, and cover letter directions and examples.
                              

  2. Help for ESL/NNS/TESOL/EAP Writing: Hundreds of Online Resources for Speakers of English as a Second Language

  3. Online Arguments, Books, & News: Many Arguments and Editorials; 1+ Million Books and Articles Online

  4. Writing Textbooks & Tutors: Complete Writing and Composition Textbooks on the Web, and How to Find a One-on-One Tutor

    See also "Ch. 11: Grammar Guides" for grammar-guidelines books online.

    See also "Ch. 18. Online Research Resources: Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Literary Texts, and Expository Readings" for online reference books.

                                        

student researching at a computer

Section E., three chapters
RESEARCH & BIBLIOGRAPHIES
Researching; MLA, APA, CBE, AP, and Other Styles; Research Resources
   

                               
Each chapter is a list of links:

  1. Research Writing, Plagiarism, & Samples: Steps of Research & Writing; What to Do & to Avoid; Sample Papers

  2. Citation & Documentation: MLA, APA, CHICAGO/TURABIAN, CBE, AP, et al. 

  3. References & Research Resources: Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Newspapers, and Online Libraries

                                        

       

Section F., three chapters
DISCIPLINES, PROFESSIONS, & MAJORS
Graphic Design; Papers in Majors, Disciplines, and Professions; Applying for College, Scholarships, and Jobs
   

                              
Each chapter is a list of links:

  1. Visual & Multimodal Design: Using Space, Graphics, and Multimodal Typing and Methods

  2. Writing in Majors, Disciplines, Professions: Writing in the Professions, Disciplines, and Majors--Instructions and Sample Papers
               
    See also "Ch. 12: Basic Types of College Papers--Directions & Samples" for methods and sample papers across multiple disciplines, s
                          

  3. Applying for Jobs, College, or Graduate School: Resumes, Application and Cover Letters, Personal Statements, etc.

Return to top.

                    

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Section A.--Four Chapters 
GETTING STARTED
Steps, Focus, Thinking, and Reading

(Click on the chapter's title or scroll down.)

  1. Introduction: About This Web Site

  2. Process & Focus: Focusing, Freewriting, Revising, and Peer Reviewing

  3. How to Think & Read in College: How Both Relate to Writing

  4. Literature, Reading, & Writing: Definitions, Studying and Writing about Literature, and Free Online Literary Readings

                     

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION   
About This Web Site
 (revised 3-12)

    

WELCOME

        Welcome to the Online Grammar Handbook ("OGH "), 3rd edition!  This 3rd ed. was completed in 2012 with many more links, updates on old links, and new video sections added to most chapters.

        The OGH is not a normal online book but rather a highly useful directory of links that lead to literally millions of online materials about writing, grammar, argument, literature, reading and thinking, and many other writing-related subjects.  It serves as a complete "grammar handbook" with many more resources from a wider variety of authors, colleges, and universities than grammar handbooks in printed form.  And because of its breadth of high quality links, it offers more resources about college writing than almost any other writing resource on the web. 

        The OGH also presents links to fully online writing textbooks, hundreds of types of college and professional papers, and many dozens of excellent sample papers by students.  It also offers links leading to more than one million other readings such as arguments, full-text literary classics, and nonfiction books and essays.

                

SELECTION OF LINKS 

        Four guidelines are used in selecting links: 

(1) Links are appropriate for college and university undergraduates and graduates, basic/developmental college writers (and high school seniors), and college-educated professionals using workplace writing. 

(2) Links are as comprehensive as possible, even while offering specific advice. 

(3) Links usually are easily usable. 

(4) Links are chosen, in every section or group of chapters, so that almost any level or type of writer may find something helpful.  If you would like to have a particularly useful site reviewed, you may suggest it to the editor for review and possible inclusion: contact the editor.

                

HISTORY OF THE HANDBOOK

1st edition: 2001

2nd edition: 2006 

3rd edition: 2012

        OGH originally began as a two-year, 1999-2001 project funded at the University of Minnesota by the College of Liberal Arts Computer and Technology Committee.  The grant was provided to create a large Composition Program web site, part of which was the OGH.  OGH was created in 2000 and first appeared on the Web in January 2001.  At that time, OGH then became the University of Minnesota College of Liberal Art's primary online grammar resource, hence its full name, "University of Minnesota Online Grammar Handbook." 

        In 2006-2007, OGH received editing of broken links and minor revision.  In 2007, the University of Minnesota English Department's Composition Program was combined with writing and rhetoric programs in two other units to become part of a new department, Writing Studies.  A committee in this new department then chose to develop a newer, much smaller web site for its composition program.  However, OGH still remains on the University of Minnesota computer server in the editor's personal alumnus section, and it is updated every four to six years in order to serve its tens of thousands of users who continue to discover and return to it each year.

                

THE EDITOR

        The editor, Richard Jewell, is the founder and co-coordinator of the Minnesota Colleges and Universities English and Writing ("MnCUEW") Annual Conference, website (www.MnCUEW.org), and listserv.  The listserv provides a monthly newsletter to over 2000 college and university English composition and literature instructors and related instructors and staff in Minnesota, Wisconsin, northern Iowa, and eastern North and South Dakota. 

        Richard is also a writing specialist with tenure in English at Inver Hills Community College in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis-St. Paul) metropolitan area, where he also is lead coordinator of the college's local chapter of the Phi Theta Kappa International Honor Society.  Before joining the Inver Hills faculty, Richard was a composition specialist for the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities and taught writing and other courses at public and private colleges in the Twin Cities and at St. Cloud State University. 

        In addition, he has trained elementary, secondary, and college teachers in how to teach writing, most recently writing in the disciplines for MnSCU (the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities).  He has taught writing for twenty-eight years and still enjoys it immensely. 

        His articles and stories have been published over one hundred times in popular magazines, and he has had a dozen juried and non-juried essays accepted for academic publication.  One of these, coauthored with Chris Anson, is the lead essay in Moving a Mountain, a co-winner of the 2003 NCTE (National Council of Teachers of English) "CCCC Outstanding Book Award."  Richard also is the author of two full-text web books, www.WritingforCollege.org and Experiencing the Humanities and of several other web directories.  In addition, Richard has offered several dozen presentations at state, regional, and national academic conferences, most recently at CCCC 2012 in St. Louis on the subject of the stages of the college writer, and at MnCUEW 2012 on how English graduates can be hired to two-year college positions.  His curriculum vita/resume is at www.RichardJewell.net.

                

USING THE ONLINE GRAMMAR HANDBOOK

        Using OGH is simple.  You may go to the beginning of OGH--to the "Short Table of Contents"--and click on a chapter there; or you may go to the "Long Table of Contents," read the descriptions there of each section and chapter, and then click on your choice.  Some links lead directly to lessons or readings, some to videos, and others to lists of other quality sites.  If you have any questions, please contact the editor.

                

Return to top.

    

Chapter 2: PROCESS & FOCUS 
Focusing, Freewriting, Revising, AND Peer Reviewing
(rev. 5-12)

                       

General and/or Introductory:

Video:

         

  • Flow: N. Carolina (2 min. & 21 sec. in length, slide & audio), Penn St. (4:25)

  • Generating ideas: Dickinson Coll. (several basics, 4:04), Buffalo St. (group brainstorming, 5:28), Cmerci113 (clusters/mind maps/bubbles, 38 sec.), Purdue (invention/prewriting, slides & audio, 4:38)

  • How to write a college paper: ExpertVillage (12 videos of 30 sec. to 5 min. in length)

  • Peer review: Indiana U. SE (5:01)

  • Revising and getting feedback, 7 videos: HSteacher1

  • Rhetoric, intro to: Purdue (def. & history, slides and audio, 3:27)

  • Starting: Penn St. (6:25)

  • Writing Process: Mt. Royal (basics, 1:47); Carlabcross (detailed silent slide show, 3:33)                                                                                                

Specific Information:

                     

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.      How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                  

Chapter 3: HOW TO THINK & READ IN COLLEGE
How Both Relate to Writing
(rev. 8-14)  

                       

General/Intro:

             

Videos about Methods of Critical Reading:

                

Specific Info:

                  

Return to top.

                                  

Chapter 4: LITERATURE, READING, & WRITING    
Definitions, Studying and Writing about Literature, and Online Books
(rev. 6-13)

                       

Note: Links in bold have sample/example papers.

 

 

 

 

General/Intro:

Videos & Audios of Literature/Literary Authors:

       Annenberg Learner Series:

       Other Videos:

Specific Info:

Free Online Literature, Classics and Other:

Return to top.

                           

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Section B.--Three Chapters 
UNITS OF ENGLISH
Using Words,
Sentences, and Paragraphs
(Click on the chapter's title or scroll down.)

  1. Choosing Words: Types of Words, Homonyms, Synonyms, Antonyms, Transitions, Commonly Misused Words, etc.

  2. Making Sentences: How to Define, Create, and Edit a Sentence

  3. Organizing & Paragraphs: How to Develop Organization and Thoughts through Paragraphs

                

Chapter 5: CHOOSING WORDS    
Word Choices, Homonyms, Synonyms, Antonyms, and Common Misuse
(rev. 5-12)

                       

General/Intro:

Video:

Specific Info:

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

              

Chapter 6: MAKING SENTENCES (rev. 4-12)
Definition, Development, and Editing of Sentences

                       

General/Intro:

Video & Audio:

Specific Info:

                   

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                

Chapter 7:  ORGANIZING & PARAGRAPHS   
Organizing & Paragraphs: How to Develop Organization and Thoughts with Paragraphs (rev. 6-13)

                       

General/Intro:

Video:

Specific Info:

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.      How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                  

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     Section C.--Four Chapters 
MECHANICS OF EDITING
Grammar, Spelling,
and Punctuation

(Click on the chapter's title or scroll down.)

  1. General Revising & Editing Concerns: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading

  2. Spelling: Commonly Misspelled Words, Spelling Patterns, and Other Common Spelling Problems

  3. Punctuation: How to Use Commas, Quotation Marks, Apostrophes, Colons, Semicolons, etc.

  4. Grammar Guides: Full Online Guides and Books about Verbs, Nouns, Agreement, Number, etc.
                       
    See also "Ch. 15:
    Online Writing Textbooks" for online textbooks & handbooks on general writing.

        

Chapter 8:  GENERAL REVISING & EDITING CONCERNS (rev. 4-12)
Editing, Guides, and Proofreading

                       

General/Intro:

Video & Audio:

Specific Info:

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                   

Chapter 9:  SPELLING
Spelling Patterns, Common Misspellings, and Other Spelling Problems (rev. 5-12)

                       

General/Intro:

Video:

Specific Info:

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                  

    .    ?     !  

   ,     :     ;  
               

  '  '     "  "

  -          --

(  )  . . .  [  ]

                 

Chapter 10:  PUNCTUATION 
                      

Use of Commas, Quotation Marks, Apostrophes, Colons, Semicolons, etc. (rev. 5-12)

                       

General/Intro:

Video & Audio:

Specific Info:

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                  

Chapter 11: GRAMMAR GUIDES    
Excellent Online Guides  about Verbs, Nouns, Agreement, Number, etc. (rev. 3-13)
                    
See also "Ch. 15: Online Writing Textbooks" for online textbooks & handbooks on general writing.

                       

Basic Guides:

Grammar Checkers & Tutors:

  • Microsoft Word grammar and spelling checker (already installed free in your Word writing program)--how to use it: Microsoft

  • "Grammarly" recommended as best online grammar checker: TopTenReviews

  • "Grammarly" not recommended for offline use as a downloaded add-in/software: TopTenReviews

  • Tutor or other helper, finding a: See "15. Writing Textbooks & Tutors."

  

Video & Audio:

College-level Review, Intermediate, & Advanced:

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                     

              

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     Section D.--Four Chapters (Click on the chapter names or scroll down.)
FINDING HELP ONLINE
Online Samples, Tutors, ESL/NNS, and Textbooks
   
  1. Basic Types of College Papers--Directions & Samples: Dozens of Introductory-level College Papers Explained, Many with Samples 
             
    See also "Ch. 20: Writing in Majors, Disciplines, & Professions" for papers in specific disciplines or professions.
                     
    See also "Ch 21:
    Job/School Applications, Resumes, & Cover Letters" for applications, resumes, and cover letter directions and examples.

                              

  2. Help for ESL/NNS/EAP Writing: Hundreds of Online Resources for Speakers of English as a Second Language

  3. Online Arguments, Books, & News: Many Arguments and Editorials; 1+ Million Books and Articles Online

  4. Writing Textbooks & Tutors: Complete Writing and Composition Textbooks on the Web, and How to Find a One-on-One Tutor

    See also "Ch. 11: Grammar Guides" for grammar-guidelines books online.

    See also "Ch. 18. Online Research Resources: Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Literary Texts, and Expository Readings" for online reference books.

                                         

Chapter 12: SAMPLES OF GENERAL COLLEGE PAPERS & METHODS OF WRITING THEM
Dozens of Types of Papers Explained (rev. 2-13)
         

See also "Ch. 20: Writing in Majors, Disciplines, & Professions" for papers in specific disciplines or professions.
                 
See also "Ch 21:
Job/School Applications, Resumes, & Cover Letters" for applications, resumes, and cover letter directions and examples.

                         

                       

This chapter contains short and medium lessons--basic, intermediate, and advanced, some with sample papers--for general papers in the first two years of college.  There also are some lessons and samples for college basic/developmental courses or late-high school equivalents.  For more advanced or specific types of papers, see "Ch. 20."

 

 

 

 

General/Intro:

  • Capital College's Directions and Samples for Simple Papers under "Patterns of Composition": Personal Essay, Narrative or Descriptive, Describing a Process, Comparison/Contrast, Classification/Analysis, Definition, Evaluation/Review, Cause and Effect, Argumentative Essay, Writing about Literature, MLA or APA Research Paper

  • Colorado State's "Writing Documents" in the fields of composition and academic writing, argument, literature, scholarly writing, business, science, engineering, web writing, and speeches and presentations--some with and some without sample writings

  • Cornell College's Brief, Simple Guides to Writing in Courses: Art History, Classics, Economics & Business, Elementary Education, Geology, German, International Relations, Music Psychology, Science, Spanish, Women's Studies

  • Gallaudet's brief introductions to eight types of essays based on rhetorical modes

  • Writing for College's dozens of samples, examples, and chapter-length descriptions of how to write them

Video & Audio Introductions to Types of Papers:

Specific Types of Papers:

Note: Sites with samples/examples are in BOLD.

WARNING: Please do NOT copy--without giving credit--even one phrase or sentence of samples/examples.  Doing so is called "plagiarism," one of the greatest of academic sins.  Are teachers able to identify plagiarized papers easily?  Yes!  To see why, click on "Yes!" or see "Plagiarism in "Chapter 16." 

However, you may mimic the academic or professional style, tone, or voice of these papers, if you wish. Doing so is not plagiarism but rather experimentation and practice.  (You may also quote or paraphrase portions of these papers if you give proper credit in the text and in your bibliography.)

Guerilla Grammar: Ask for a specific type of paper at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                  

Chapter 13: ESL/NNS/EAP WRITING (rev. 6-13)
Hundreds of Resources for Nonnative Speakers of English as a Second Language 

                       

General/Intro:

Video & Audio:

Specific Info:

American English on the web--some popular audio & video sources:

American English on the web, audio & video sources:

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                  

Chapter 14: ONLINE ARGUMENTS, BOOKS, & NEWS
Many Arguments and Editorials; 1+ Million Books and Articles Online
 (rev. 4-13)

                       

Short Argumentative Readings:

Video and Audio:

  • Debate Central (videos, debate resources)

  • Debate Video (variety of videos)

  • Learn Out Loud (variety of audio and video debates)

  • Vimeo Debate Videos (199 debate videos)

  • To find specific argument or debate videos, use a search engine.  In the search box, type the name of your subject, and
                

    type after it the phrases

                  
         ____ argument video
         ____ debate video
      or
         ____ argument/debate audio.

    For example, you might search for
                      
         military force argument video
         world peace debate video 
    or
         resistance to war debate audio.

Editorials:

-----
                  
Online Books, Journals, Newspapers, & Magazines on Many Subjects:

Guerilla Grammar: Searching for a specific subject?  Be careful of what you find!  If you want sites your instructor will accept, get rid of the ones that do NOT use provable/proven facts and scholarly support.  Once you know how to truly evaluate websites, then you can search: use Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, or Google for arguments.        How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                  

Chapter 15:  WRITING TEXTBOOKS & TUTORS
Complete Writing and Composition Textbooks Online
for College Writers; How to Find Extra Help
(rev. 5-12)
                    

See also "Ch. 11: Grammar Guides" for grammar-guidelines books online.

See also "Ch. 18. Online Research Resources: Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Literary Texts, and Expository Readings" for online reference books.

                       

General Writing e-Textbooks (long) & Handbooks (slightly shorter):

Video & Audio Sets/General Guides:

  • Citation & documentation w/MLA & APA, 8 brief intro slide shows w/audio: Endicott

  • Creative writing, publication, and literature, 100 videos: Online College

  • Speeches (audio): American Rhetoric Speech Bank (100s)

  • Grammar videos: See "Chapter 11. Grammar Guides"

  • Writing and grammar (audio): Grammar Girl (dozens)

  • Basic and writing for publication, 15 videos & audios: James Adams

  • Book writing, popular or creative, 23 videos: Jackson Pearce

  • College writing, 9 brief videos from 9 faculty members: Hope

  • ESL/NNS videos and audios, resource lists of many:

  • English Meeting (resource list of 100s), English with Jennifer (254 short, basic lessons),

  • Grammar: dozens of podcasts--some audio, some slides & audio, and several video--on grammar and other writing subjects: Texas A&M (Access them faster by using the search phrase "TAMU podcast" with your grammar or punct. need: e.g., "TAMU podcast semicolon.")

  • News writing, 15 half-hr. audios: Shasta/Annenberg/KHSL-TV

  • Research writing in college, 10 short slide shows w/audio: U. Cal.-Davis (scroll down to "How to Write")

  • Citation & documentation w/MLA & APA, brief intros:  slide shows w/audio: eHow (6 videos), Endicott (8 slide shows w/audio)

  • Simple, basic, brief tips for public, college-entrance, or work-related writing, 21 videos: eHow

  • Writing, grammar, and punctuation, 22 short videos: Purdue OWL

Getting Help from Tutors & Others:

     -----

  • Tutoring at no cost (free):
    (1) Ask your school or major public library how to find "writing center" or "tutoring center" help. 
    (2) For advice, see "Finding a Tutor." 
    (3) If you need location lists, see International Writing Centers Association.

  • Tutoring for a paid fee:
    (1) Read section "c" in "Finding a Tutor." 
    (2) Then use a web browser to search for these phrases: "writing tutor" or "writing tutor college."

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                  

              

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     student researching at a computer

Section E.--Three Chapters (Click on the chapter names or scroll down.)
ONLINE RESEARCH & BIBLIOGRAPHIES
Researching, MLA, APA, CBE, AP, and Other Styles and Resources
 (rev. 6-12)

  1. Research Writing, Plagiarism, & Samples: Steps of Research & Writing; What to Do and to Avoid; and Sample Papers

  2. Citation & Documentation: MLA, APA, CHICAGO/TURABIAN, CBE, AP, et al. 

  3. References & Research Resources: Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Newspapers, and Online Libraries

                        

Chapter 16: RESEARCH WRITING,  PLAGIARISM, & SAMPLE PAPERS  (rev. 5-12. addtns. 6-12)
Steps of Research and Writing; What to Do and to Avoid; and Sample Papers   

 

                       

                    
Research Papers--Excellent Samples/Examples:

   

WARNING: Please do NOT copy--without giving credit--even one phrase or sentence of samples/examples.  Doing so is called "plagiarism," one of the greatest of academic sins.  Are teachers able to identify plagiarized papers easily?  Yes!  To see why, click on "Yes!" or see "Plagiarism in "Chapter 16." 
         
However, you may mimic the academic or professional style, tone, or voice of these papers, if you wish. Doing so is not plagiarism but rather experimentation and practice.  (You may also quote or paraphrase portions of these papers if you give proper credit in the text and in your bibliography.)

Video & Audio:

Excellent Research Writing e-Textbooks and Handbooks:

Specific Info        

Guerilla Grammar: Ask for a specific type of discipline with the word "writing" or "research" at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.   How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                  

                       

Chapter 17CITATION & DOCUMENTATION
Parenthetical and Other Citations, Bibliographies, and Footnotes;
MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, CSE, AP, et al. (rev. 6-12)

                       

Sample Papers: See "Ch. 16. Research Writing, Plagiarism, & Samples," above.

         

Note about Styles:
                  
"MLA" is used most often in English, humanities, and introductory writing classes.
"APA" is used most often in the social sciences and most nursing disciplines.
"Chicago/Turabian/CMS" is used most often in history and public affairs.
Other disciplines often have their own styles, many listed below.

   

General/Intro:

  • Hacker & Fister (brief intros w/examples in four disciplinary areas)

  • Paradigm (brief, general basics)

  • Wikipedia (good longer definition of "citation")

  • See also "Ch. 16. Research, Writing, & Plagiarism," above, for good online manuals on research, documentation, and citation, along with sample papers containing exemplary bibliographies and citations.  

Bibliography Makers:
Note: The web page asks questions; you answer.  It then writes the bibliography, and you copy it to your paper.

Video:

Specific Styles, MLA & APA:

(Note: In introductory writing courses, use MLA unless your instructor says otherwise.)

Other Styles:

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

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Chapter 18: REFERENCES & RESEARCH RESOURCES (rev. 6-12)
Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Newspapers, and Online Libraries

                       

Note: Usually you should not quote dictionaries and any general encyclopedia in papers except, possibly, Brittanica.  Why?  In "Big Problem?" in this website, see "7. Why won't my professor let me use Wikipedia...."  However, some  professors allow quotations from "subject" encyclopedias and dictionaries--ask your professor.

                      
General References (Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, etc.)

        

 

Video:

  • 40 videos at Merriam-Webster

  • Choose a word and search for it as a video: for example, "__[word]__ video."

  • Google as a dictionary: Answers.com (1:53)

  • Sign language: ASL Pro (thousands of words)

  • Video dictionary: Vidtionary (basic/ESL/NNS)

  • Google as a video dictionary/encyclopedia:
    Step 1: Type "define" and a colon (":"), and a word immediately after the colon with no space.
    Example: define:neptune planet
    Step 2: Then, in the left column of Google, click on "Videos."

Specific Subjects/Reference Works:

 

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

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Section F.--Three Chapters (Click on the chapter names or scroll down.)
WRITING FOR
MAJOR & PROFESSION
Writing in Majors, Disciplines, and Professions; Multimodal Design; and Applying for Work

  1. Visual & Multimodal Design: Using Space, Graphics, and Multimodal Typing and Methods

  2. Writing in Majors, Disciplines, Professions: Writing in the Professions, Disciplines, and Majors--Instructions and Sample Papers
               
    See also "Ch. 12: Basic Types of College Papers--Directions & Samples" for methods and sample papers across multiple disciplines,
                          

  3. Applying for Jobs, College, or Graduate School: Resumes, Application and Cover Letters, Personal Statements, etc.

              

Chapter 19: VISUAL & MULTIMODAL DESIGN     
Using Space, Graphics, and Multimodal Typing and Methods (rev. 4-13)

                       

General/Intro:

Video:

Specific Info:

       

(Sites with samples or examples are in BOLD.)

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

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Chapter 20: WRITING IN MANY FIELDS & DISCIPLINES   
Writing in the Professions, Majors, and Disciplines--Instructions and Sample Papers
(rev. 6-12)

                       

General/Intro:

Video, Audio, Slides:

Info for Writing in Many Disciplines:

(Sites with samples or examples are in BOLD.)

WARNING: Please do NOT copy--without giving credit--even one phrase or sentence of samples/examples.  Doing so is called "plagiarism," one of the greatest of academic sins.  Are teachers able to identify plagiarized papers easily?  Yes!  To see why, click on "Yes!" or see "Plagiarism in "Chapter 16." 

However, you may mimic the academic or professional style, tone, or voice of these papers, if you wish. Doing so is not plagiarism but rather experimentation and practice.  (You may also quote or paraphrase portions of these papers if you give proper credit in the text and in your bibliography.)

        

Info for a Specific Discipline:

(Sites with samples or examples are in BOLD.)

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

             

Chapter 21: APPLYING FOR JOBS, COLLEGE, OR GRADUATE SCHOOL 
Resumes, Application and Cover Letters, Personal Statements, etc.
(rev. 6-12)

                       

Note: The following sites provide written guidelines to help you develop your resume or curriculum vita, write a cover letter, create a personal statement for graduate school, etc.

(Sites with samples or examples are in BOLD.)

   

             

General/Intro:

Video:

  • Cover or application letter, slides & audio: Purdue (slides & audio, 11:41)

  • Personal statement: Purdue (slides & audio, 12:55), W. Virginia (intro, audio, 5:27)

  • Resume: Purdue (intro, slides & audio, 5:40), S. Cal. (31:44)

  • Business school application--learn how to navigate typical application processes for graduate business programs: Wisconsin (23 min.)

Specific Info:

Guerilla Grammar: Ask a specific question or type a subject at Ask.com, Bing, Dogpile, Google, or Wikipedia.       How to Search

                                 

Return to top.

                                  

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Editor: Richard Jewell, Inver Hills College, Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MnSCU)   
Originally published by the Univ. of Minnesota English Department's Composition Program Web Site
1st Edition: 2001.  2nd Edition: 2006.  3rd Edition: 2012.  Most recent update in this page: 2 Aug. 2014
URL: http://www.umn.edu/home/jewel001/grammar.  Also at OnlineGrammar.org & myOGH.org

Editor

To contact the author, go to Contact Richard Jewell.  
Requests, reports of broken links, and suggestions are welcome.

                                   

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The views and opinions expressed in this page are strictly those of the page author.
The contents of this page have not been reviewed or approved by the University of Minnesota.