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Chapter 6  Sentence Patterns

Word order is important in English sentences. Since we do not have many endings on our nouns, pronouns, and adjectives to indicate how they function in a sentence, we rely more heavily on word order and sentence patterns than other more highly inflected languages. Being able to recognize these sentence patterns will help you to be a better writer and a better editor of your own writing.

Another advantage of being able to recognize sentence patterns is that they can serve as a guide for writing or as a checklist for revising. You are not expected to follow these patterns slavishly, but when you choose to break a pattern, you should be making a conscious choice based on your reader's needs and your purpose in writing. The changes or breaks that you make in the patterns should not be oversights or errors. Understanding the sentence patterns will also help you understand the logic of English sentences and lead you to a better understanding of style, usage, and punctuation.

Learner Outcomes

After completing Chapter 6 Sentence Patterns, you will be able to

Ÿ        Identify and cite examples of the six basic sentence patterns

Common Sentence Patterns

There are six basic sentence patterns that indicate how the parts of speech function in English sentences. Once you recognize these patterns, you can slot nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, and phrases into them to create sentences. When you edit your writing, you can also check to see if you are using these patterns effectively. Native speakers learn the language as children by recognizing these patterns implicitly and practicing them. When we make mistakes, our parents or siblings correct us. However, most of us don't have either the need or the desire to examine these patterns, that is, to make what we know implicitly explicit—unless we are experiencing problems with grammar, usage, or punctuation.

The good news is that as we review these patterns, you will realize that you already know them but maybe you have not consciously recognized them, analyzed them, or labeled the parts before. The even better news is that once you start identifying and practicing using these patterns, you will begin to diagnose the grammar and usage errors you are making and begin to correct them yourself. A bonus of learning sentence patterns is that they help us understand how to punctuate sentences, especially the use of commas, semi-colons and terminal punctuation (periods, question marks, exclamation points). By consciously using these sentence patterns, you will begin to recognize the need for punctuation as cues to reading and understanding the meaning of the sentence. You will also begin to notice how logical and consistent punctuation patterns and sentence patterns really are.

The six basic sentence patterns are the following:

0.     S  +  V  +  [O]

0.     S  +  V  +  [O]  +  _____

0.     _____  +  S  +  V  +  [O]

0.     _____  +  S  +  V  +  [O]  +  _____

0.     S  +  [E]  +  V  +  [O]  +  [E]

0.     [_____]  +  S  +  [E]  +  V  +  [O]  + [E]  +  [_____]

Notice that what is constant in each of these patterns is the subject (S) and verb (V). For a group of words to be a sentence, it must have a subject, either stated or understood, and a verb. All the rest is optional. The elements in brackets are all optional—objects (O) which can either be direct, indirect, or complements; embedded structures (E) like appositives or restrictive and nonrestrictive phrases or clauses; and _____ (right and left branching structures) such as introductory phrases or clauses, prepositional phrases, infinitives, participles, gerunds, or adverbs.

Now let's begin analyzing the basic sentence patterns.

1.       S  +  V  +  [O]

The first sentence pattern, S  +  V  +  [O], should be read: subject  +  verb  +  optional object. (Anything in brackets is optional.) This is the simplest and most basic sentence pattern. The subject slot can be filled with a noun, pronoun, infinitive, gerund, or noun clause. The object slot can also be filled with a noun, pronoun, infinitive, gerund, or noun clause, which can function as a direct object, indirect object, or subject complement. Whether or not the object is optional depends on the type of verb.

 

S  +

V  +

[O]

The teacher

wrote

the report.

Peg

drove

the car.

Swimming

is

good exercise.

 

In the first sentence, teacher is the subject, or the “agent” or the “doer” of the action. Wrote is the verb, or the action that that teacher did. The report is the receiver of the action, or the object. Who is the agent and what is the receiver of the action in the second sentence? In the third sentence, we have a gerund in the subject slot functioning as a noun and a linking verb in the verb slot. When you have this kind of structure, the object slot is filled with a subject complement, which refers back to the subject: swimming º exercise.

The first three sentences below are declarative, or make a statement. The last two sentences are imperative, or give an order or command. In an imperative sentence, the subject is not stated directly. It is you understood. In other words, when we say “Stop!” or “Enter” to someone, we mean “You stop!” or “You enter.” Therefore, all of the following sentences follow the first pattern.

 

S  +

V  +

[O]

The opera singer

sang.

 

The opera singer

sang

the aria.

The squirrel

chattered.

 

(you)

Stop!

 

(you)

Enter.

 

 

We could have a compound subject, a compound verb, a compound object, or all three and we would still have a simple sentence.

 

S  +

V  +

[O]

The squirrel and the blue jay

scolded

the cat.

(compound subject)

 

 

 

 

 

The red squirrel

chased and bit

the albino squirrel.

 

(compound verb)

 

 

 

 

The squirrel and the blue jay

found and ate

the bread crusts.

(compound subject)

(compound verb)

 

 

 

 

The animals

entertained

Phil and me.

 

 

(compound object)

Doer(s)  +

action(s)

+ receiver(s) of the action(s)

 

Notice that each of these examples is a simple sentence. Each expresses a complete thought. Each is also an independent clause because the definition of a simple sentence is one that is composed of one independent clause. Having a compound subject, compound verb, or compound object does not change the fact that each of these examples consists of just one independent clause. As with all sentences, these begin with a capital letter and end with terminal punctuation—in this case—periods and exclamation points. Any proper nouns in these sentences are also capitalized. There is no need for any other punctuation in these sentences.

Practice Identifying Elements in S  +  V  +  [O]

Basic

Identify the subject of the following sentences with one underline, the verb with two underlines, and the object with parentheses.

“The Oak Tree and the Reed” [1]

1.     A reed and oak tree argued.

2.     The oak tree was strong.

3.     She boasted.

4.     She could always stand firm.

5.     She condemned the weak reed.

6.     The reed yielded.

7.     The wind then began to blow very fiercely.

8.     The oak tree was torn up and toppled over.

9.     The reed was left bent but unharmed.

Basic—Key

“The Oak Tree and the Reed”

1.     A reed and oak tree argued.

2.     The oak tree was (strong).

3.     She boasted.

4.     She could always stand (firm).

5.     She condemned the weak (reed).

6.     The reed yielded.

7.     The wind then began (to blow) very fiercely.

8.     The oak tree was torn up and toppled over.

9.     The reed was left (bent) but (unharmed).

2.       S  +  V  +  [O]  +  ______

The second sentence pattern, S  +  V  +  [O]  +  ______, is read “subject + verb + optional object + right branching structure.” The right branching structure slot can be filled with a prepositional phrase, an adverb, a verbal phrase, or a dependent clause. The following are examples of the second sentence pattern with a prepositional phrase in the right-branching slot:

 

S  +

V  +

[O]  +

______

The technical writer

wrote

the report

in record time.

The report

was written

 

by the technical writer.

The red squirrel

chased and bit

the albino squirrel

in a fit of pique.

The albino squirrel

was chased and bitten

 

by the red squirrel.

The opera singer

sang

the aria

for the audience.

The aria

was sung

 

by the opera singer.

 

If the sentence takes an indirect object (to + noun/pronoun), it can be located in one of two places, either before or after the direct object. When the to is stated (to me, to Helen), the indirect object acts as a right branching structure (below). In the second set of examples below, the to is understood and the indirect object comes before the direct object, but still in the object slot [O]. So the second examples follow the first sentence pattern.

 

S  +

V  +

[O]  +

______

Paul

gave

the letter

to me.

He

returned

the parcel

to Helen.

 

S  +

V  +

[O]

Paul

gave

me   the letter.

He

gave

Helen   the parcel.

 

 

(indirect & direct objects)

 

There are two ways of identifying the indirect object. One way is by its placement in front of the direct object. The other way is to place to before it and see if it makes sense.

The following examples show the right branching structure as an adverb:

 

S  +

V  +

[O]  +

______

The opera singer

sang

 

well.

The aria

was sung

 

flawlessly.

The technical writer

wrote

the report

quickly.

 

The following examples show the right branching structure as a verbal phrase:

 

S  +

V  +

[O]  +

______

The opera singer

sang

the aria

written by Mozart.

The technical writer

wrote

the report

needed by the CEO.

The red squirrel

chased

the squirrel

chattering outside the window.

 

Note that all of these sentences have only one independent clause, so they are all simple sentences. However, if a sentence has one independent and one or more dependent clauses, it is a complex sentence. The following examples show the right branching structure as a dependent clause and are, therefore, complex sentences:

 

S  +

V  +

[O]  +

______

The technical writer

wrote

the report

that was late.

The red squirrel

chased

the squirrel

that was an albino.

 

Practice Identifying Elements in S  +  V  +  [O]  +  _____

Basic

Identify the subject with parentheses, the verb with double underlining, the object with brackets, and the right branching structure with single underlining.

“The Oak Tree and the Reed”

1.     A reed got into an argument with and oak tree.

2.     The oak tree marveled at her own strength.

3.     She boasted with pride.

4.     She could stand her own in a battle with the winds.

5.     She condemned the reed for being weak.

6.     He was naturally inclined to yield to every breeze.

7.     The wind then began to blow very fiercely.

8.     The oak tree was torn up by her roots and toppled over.

9.     The reed was left bent but unharmed by the wind.

Basic—Key

“The Oak Tree and the Reed”

1.     A (reed) got into an argument with an oak tree.

2.     The oak (tree) marveled at her own strength.

3.     (She) boasted with pride.

4.     (She) could stand her [own] in a battle against the winds.

5.     (She) condemned the [reed] for being weak.

6.     (He) was naturally inclined [to yield] to every breeze.

7.     The (wind) then began [to blow] very fiercely.

8.     The oak (tree) was torn up by her roots and toppled over.

9.     The (reed) was left [bent] but [unharmed] by the wind.

3.       _____  +  S  +  V  +  [O]

The third basic sentence pattern is _____  +  S  +  V  +  [O], which reads “left branching structure + subject + verb + optional object.” The left branching structure slot can be filled with an introductory phrase, an interjection, an adverb, or a dependent clause. The following sentences are examples of the third basic sentence pattern in which the left-branching structure is an introductory phrase:

 

_____  +

S  +

V  +

[O]

According to the manager,

the engineer

wrote

the report.

After finding the keys,

Helen

left

the house.

Finding her keys,

Helen

left

the house.

Engaged in conversation,

Joe

paid

attention.

 

The following examples show the left branching structure as an interjection:

 

_____  +

S  +

V  +

[O]

No,

I

won't go.

 

No,

I

won't come

home.

Yikes!

You

frightened

me!

 

The following examples show the left branching structure as an adverb:

 

_____  +

S  +

V  +

[O]

Grudgingly,

Patrice

agreed.

 

Fortunately,

John

passed

the class.

 

The following examples show the left branching structure as a dependent clause:

 

_____  +

S  +

V  +

[O]

After it rained,

the weather

cleared.

 

Although Patrice agreed,

she

was

unhappy.

 

As you can see, the left branching structures can be one word or several words long. In nearly all cases they are set off with commas (sometimes exclamation points if they are interjections) from the independent clause. The rule is if they are three words or longer, set them off with commas. However, if the left branching structures are emphatic (like no, yes, or oh), they are always set off in commas or exclamation points depending on how much emphasis you give them—even if they are only one word long.

Practice Identifying Elements in _____  +  S  +  V  +  [O]

Basic

For each sentence, underline the left branching structures; put parentheses around the subjects; put double underlines around the verbs; and put brackets around the objects.

“The Oak Tree and the Reed”

1.     Once upon a time, a reed and oak tree argued.

2.     Without a doubt, the oak tree was strong.

3.     Pridefully, she boasted.

4.     Therefore, she condemned the weak reed.

5.     Easily, the reed yielded.

6.     Very fiercely, the wind then began to blow.

7.     In a few minutes, the oak tree was torn up and toppled over.

8.     Miraculously, the reed was left bent but unharmed.

Basic—Key

“The Oak Tree and the Reed”

1.     Once upon a time, a (reed) and oak (tree) argued.

2.     Without a doubt, the oak (tree) was [strong].

3.     Pridefully, (she) boasted.

4.     Therefore, (she) condemned the weak [reed].

5.     Easily, the (reed) yielded.

6.     Very fiercely, the (wind) then began [to blow].

7.     In a few minutes, the oak (tree) was torn up and toppled over.

8.     Miraculously, the (reed) was left [bent] but [unharmed].

4.       _____  +  S  +  V  +  [O]  +  _____

The fourth sentence pattern,  _____  +  S  +  V  +  [O]  +  _____, is read “left branching structure + subject + verb + optional object  + right branching structure.”

The left branching structure slot can be filled with an introductory phrase, an interjection, an adverb, or a dependent clause, just as in the third sentence pattern. The right branching structure slot can be filled with a prepositional phrase, an adverb, a verbal phrase, or a dependent clause, just as in the second sentence pattern. So you can see that the first four sentence patterns build on each other in an incremental way. Let's examine some examples:

 

_____  +

S  +

V  +

[O]  +

_____

According to the manager,

the technical writer

wrote

the report

in record time.

(prepositional phrase)

 

 

 

(prepositional phrase)

 

 

 

 

 

Grudgingly,

Patrice

signed

the document

without a fuss.

(adverb)

 

 

 

(prepositional phrase)

 

 

 

 

 

Exercising in the pool,

Tony

felt

a cramp

coming on.

(participial phrase)

 

 

 

(participial phrase)

 

Practice Identifying Elements in _____  +  S  +  V  +  [O]  +  _____

Basic

In the following sentences: underline the right and left branching structures; put the subjects in parentheses; double underline the verbs; and put the objects in brackets.

“The Oak Tree and the Reed”

1.     Once upon a time, a reed got into an argument with an oak tree.

2.     Pridefully, the oak tree marveled at her own strength.

3.     Meanwhile, she condemned the reed for being weak.

4.     Suddenly, the wind began to blow very fiercely.

5.     Almost at once, the oak tree was torn up by her roots and toppled over.

6.     Miraculously, the reed was left bent but unharmed after the storm.

Basic—Key

“The Oak Tree and the Reed”

1.     Once upon a time, a (reed) got into an argument with an oak tree.

2.     Pridefully, the oak (tree) marveled at her own strength.

3.     Meanwhile, (she) condemned the [reed] for being weak.

4.     Suddenly, the (wind) began [to blow] very fiercely.

5.     Almost at once, the oak (tree) was torn up by her roots and toppled over.

6.     Miraculously, the (reed) was left [bent] but [unharmed] after the storm.

5.       S  +  [E]  +  V  +  [O]  +  [E]

The fifth sentence pattern is S  +  [E]  +  V  +  [O]  +  [E], which reads “subject + optional embedded structure + verb + optional object + optional embedded structure.” The embedded structures could be in apposition to a noun or they could be adjectival phrases or clauses. As stated in Chapter 2, modifiers that modify a noun or pronoun, such as appositives, adjectival phrases, or adjectival clauses, may be either restrictive or nonrestrictive. Appositives can be restrictive if they are absolutely necessary to clarify the meaning, or they can be nonrestrictive if they provide additional information not necessary for the meaning. Prepositional, infinitive, or participial phrases or clauses can also function as adjectives, and they too can be restrictive or nonrestrictive. Nonrestrictive elements are set off by commas; restrictive elements do not take any punctuation. Therefore, the embedded structures may be restrictive or nonrestrictive appositives as well as restrictive or nonrestrictive prepositional, infinitive, or participial phrases or clauses.

 

S  +

[E]  +

V  +

[O]  +

[E]

Jesse Ventura,

a former governor of Minnesota,

broadcast

football,

America's favorite sport.

 

(nonrestrictive appositive)

 

                                 (nonrestrictive appositive)

 

 

 

 

 

The man

in the WWF wrestling costume

became

Anoka's mayor.

 

 

(restrictive prepositional phrase)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jesse,

a leading Libertarian,

did not attend

the convention,

a biennial event.

 

(nonrestrictive appositive)

 

 

(nonrestrictive appositive)

 

 

 

 

 

Jesse,

once a navy seal,

was

a proud man.

 

 

(nonrestrictive appositive)

 

 

 

 

Practice Identifying Elements in S  +  [E]  +  V  +  [O]  +  [E]

Basic

In the following sentences: put the subjects in parentheses; double underline the verbs; put the objects in brackets; and put the embedded structures in braces.

“The Rose and the Amaranth” [2]

1.     An amaranth plant, whose flower never fades, had sprung up near a rosebush.

2.     The amaranth admired the rose, renowned for her beauty and fragrance.

3.     The amaranth, though never fading, envied the rose, much desired by the gods and humans.

4.     Amaranths, everlasting flowers, blossom and bloom eternally youthful.

5.     The rose, beautiful and admired, lives only briefly and dies.!

Basic—Key

“The Rose and the Amaranth”

1.     An amaranth (plant), {whose flower never fades}, was a common garden [plant].

2.     The (amaranth) admired the[ rose], {renowned for her beauty and fragrance}.

3.     The(amaranth), {though never fading}, envied the [rose], {much desired by the gods and humans}.

4.     (Amaranths), {everlasting flowers}, blossom and bloom eternally [youthful].

5.     The (rose), {beautiful and admired}, lives only briefly and dies.

6.       [_____]  +  S  +  [E]  +  V  +  [O]  +  [E]  +  [_____]

The sixth sentence pattern, [_____]  +  S  +  [E]  +  V  +  [O]  +  [E]  +  [_____], reads “ optional left branching structure + subject + optional embedded structure + verb + optional object + optional embedded structure + optional right branching structure.” The sixth pattern is the culmination of all the others, so it has potentially all of the same elements as the other sentence patterns. The left branching structure can be filled with an introductory phrase (such as a prepositional phrase, an infinitive phrase, a participial phrase), an interjection, an adverb, or a dependent clause. The embedded structures slots can be filled with appositives or adjectival phrases or clauses. The object slot can be filled with a direct or indirect object or a subject complement. The right branching structure slot can be filled with a prepositional phrase, an adverb, a verbal phrase, or a dependent clause.

As you can see, the logic of these sentence patterns is an incremental logic. As we move from one to the other, we see that the constants are the subject and verb. All of the rest of the elements are variables. They are optional, and they give us more information about either the subject or the verb. So the most important parts of the sentence are always the subject and verb. When you parse sentences, or break them down into their component parts, you will want to identify the subject and verb, identify the sentence pattern, and then determine which of the other possible slots can be filled by the other words in the sentence. The sentences below illustrate the sixth sentence pattern.

 

[_____]  +

S  +

[E]  +

V  +

[O]  +

[E]  +

[_____]

During his administration,

our governor,

Jesse,

broadcast

football games

 

to the legislature's chagrin.

Always entrepreneurial,

Jesse

“The Body”

found

ways

(questionably legal)

to make additional money.

Appealing to young voters,

Jesse

 

defeated

Humphrey and Coleman,

two party hacks,

to the public's surprise.

 

As we add sentence elements, these sentences get progressively longer. If one of the right or left branching structures were a dependent clause, then they would be complex sentences. When you are parsing long sentences like this, you will find it useful to begin by identifying the subject and verb, then look to see if there is an object:

 

S  +

V  +

[O]

Our governor

broadcast

football games

Jesse The Body

found

ways

Jesse

defeated

Humphrey and Coleman

 

By breaking the sentence down to its subject, verb, and object (if there is one), you can see that all of the other sentence elements amplify these elements and add richness or nuances, thereby enhancing the meaning. You will want to practice this breakdown process until you become proficient at it. In this way, you can check to see how many independent and dependent clauses you have. You can also easily check for subject-verb agreement. By determining if information is necessary or optional, you can also determine if embedded elements are restrictive or nonrestrictive so that you know how to punctuate them.

Practice Identifying Elements in [_____]  +  S  +  [E]  +  V  +  [O]  +  [E]  +  [_____]

Basic

In the following sentences: put the subjects in parentheses; double underline the verbs; underline the right and left branching structures; put brackets around the objects; and put braces around the embedded structures.

“The Rose and the Amaranth”

1.     Once upon a time, the amaranth, whose flower never fades, had sprung up next to a rose bush.

2.     For a while, the amaranth admired the rose, desired by gods and mortals.

3.     Screwing up her courage, the amaranth, a common garden flower, congratulated the rose on her beauty and fragrance.

4.     “Congratulations! You, fragrant rose, are a delightful flower, prized for your beauty!”

5.     “O amaranth! You, everlasting flower, blossom and bloom with eternal youth.

6.     Whereas, I, with all my beauty, shrivel and die in a few short weeks.”

Basic—Key

“The Rose and the Amaranth”

1.     Once upon a time, the (amaranth), {whose flower never fades}, had sprung up next to a rose bush.

2.     For a while, the (amaranth) admired the [rose], {desired by gods and mortals}.

3.     Screwing up her courage, the (amaranth), {a common garden flower}, congratulated the [rose] on her beauty and fragrance.

4.     “Congratulations! (You), {fragrant rose}, are a delightful [flower], {prized for your beauty}!”

5.     “O amaranth! (You), {everlasting flower}, blossom and bloom with eternal youth.

6.     Whereas, (I), {with all my beauty}, shrivel and die in a few short weeks.”

Review of Chapter 6  Sentence Patterns

S        +        V      +     [O]

Subject                  Verb               Optional object

The engineer    wrote         the report.

Active voice sentence: the subject is the source or “doer” of the action. The subject is the agent. The object is the receiver of the action.

The report       was written.

Passive voice sentence: What was the object now becomes the subject. The subject is acted upon in some way. The subject is no longer the source of the action. The doer is either unknown or unimportant or—if present—the object of the preposition “by.”

S        +        V      +     [O]                                        

Subject                  Verb               Optional object          Right branching structure

The engineer    wrote         the report            in record time.                                  (Active voice)

The report       was written                          by the engineer.                               (Passive voice)

                           ,        S        +        V    +       [O]

Left branching structure               Subject                  Verb               Optional object

According to the manager, the engineer     wrote         the report.

                           ,        S        +        V    +       [O]                                     

Left branching structure               Subject                  Verb               Optional object      Right branching structure

According to the manager, the engineer     wrote         the report         in record time.

S        +        [E]      +          V    +    [E]   +     [O]       +       [E]

Subject                  Embedded                 Verb           Embedded      Object                    Embedded

James,       the programmer,        sent         Laura         the database,    Quarterly Reports.

The engineer,   John Doe,           wrote                        the report.

The embedded structure is nonrestrictive. It is in apposition to “engineer” and adds additional information.

Subject                  Embedded                                                                         Verb

Procedures      for unassigned drafts, transaction diskettes,    were reviewed.

                        5000 and over draft forms, and passwords *

* The embedded structure is restrictive. This is a passive voice sentence. Passive voice sentences with long, restrictive embedded structures are hard to read. How could you change this form to a simpler one?

[                 ],   S   +    [E]       +        V  +    [O]  +     [E]     [       ]

Left branching           Subject     Embedded               Verb        Object        Embedded   Right branching

Yesterday            James, the programmer,    sent    the database Quarterly Reports in an e-mail.

 

 


Chapter 6 Test on Sentence Patterns

Identify the sentence patterns in each of the following sentences:

1.         Punctuation has been defined in many ways.

2.         Some grammarians use the analogy of stitching .

3.         Punctuation resembles basting.

4.         It holds the fabric of language in shape.

5.         Other grammarians use the analogy of traffic signals.

6.         Punctuation marks signal us to slow down, notice this, take a detour, and stop.

7.         I myself have even seen the period and comma called “the invisible servants in fairy tales.”

8.         By far, my favorite definition  is the simple advice in the style book of a national newspaper.

9.         “Punctuation is a courtesy to help readers understand a story without stumbling.”

10.       “Punctilious” (“attentive to formality or etiquette) comes from the same root word as punctuation. [3]

 

 

 

Key:

1.   Punctuation has been defined              in many ways.

S  +                  V  +                 [O]  +  _____

 

2.         Some grammarians use the analogy of stitching.

S  +               V  +  [O]             +  _____

 

3.         Punctuation resembles basting.

S                      +  V      +  [O]

 

4.         Miraculously, it           holds the fabric of language in shape.

_____           +  S         +  V     +  [O]                  +  _____

 

5.         Other grammarians      use       the analogy of traffic signals.

S                                  +  V  +  [O]                 +  _____

 

 

6.         Punctuation marks signal   us to slow down, notice this, take a detour, and stop.

S                 +  V  +  [O]  +  _____

 

 

7.         I   myself  have even seen the period and comma called “the invisible servants in

            S  +  [E]  + V                      +  [O]                         + [E]

fairy tales.”

 

 

8.         By far, my favorite definition of punctuation is the simple advice      in the

            _____   +  S                                                 +  V      + [O]                  +  _____

style book of a national newspaper.

 

 

9.               “Punctuation is a courtesy to help readers understand a story without

S               +  V  +  [O]      +  _____

stumbling.”

 

 

10.               “Punctilious” (“attentive to formality or etiquette) comes

[____]  +   S                +   [E]                                             +  V          +  [O]   +  [E] 

from the same root word as punctuation.

+  [_____]

 



[1] Adapted from “The Oak Tree and the Reed” in Aesop’s Fables, Laura Gibbs, trans. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 102-03.

[2] Adapted from “The Rose and the Amaranth” in Aesop’s Fables. Laura Gibbs, trans. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 103.

[3] Adapted from Lynne Truss, Eats, Shoots and Leaves. New York: Gotham Books, 2004, p. 7.


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