General:They show your thinking.
They resolve problems we raise in class discussion, addressing all perspectives fully.
They show what you have learned.
Essays serve to show how you have engaged the material intellectually:
An ideal essay:
is concise (~800-1000 wds = ~3-4 pages), while expressing substantive ideas.
may be informal in tone, but communicates clearly.
reflects thorough consideration of the issue(s) behind the writing.
uses several examples (or one example in extended depth), linked to a general theme.
For further guidance or support, contact Douglas or Michael!
Choose from the topics listed here -- OR address a topic recommended to you personally by me. Other topics are welcome!--but be sure to check in advance.
====== First Half:
- Reflect on Turnbull's claim that "science is an atlas." Use the concept of maps to interpret at least three examples from early science (the Big Horn medicine wheel, the compass, African farming and food prepration, Indian wootz process, and Galen's physiology). Comment on how the map metaphor can help guide historical understanding.
- Discuss the cultural context of science, as evidenced in at least three cases and/or maps.
- How do science and technology (tech-knowledgy?) relate in the emergence of science? (Consider examples from mapping, navigation/orientation, metals, agriculture and medicine.)
- Considering the origin of the compass and Galen's treatise (and possibly other cases), how should we view the relationship of science and religion in the context of early science?
- Addressing in part all the cases we have discussed, characterize how motivations and methods integrate in the earliest manifestations of science. (Perhaps address how to fruitfully conceive 'science' historically.)
======= Second Half:
Guide to interpret Douglas' markings.
- Discuss the significance of the cultural context of science the emergence of modern science (ideas, motivations, methods, institutions), as evidenced in at least three cases.
- How do science and technology relate in the emergence of modern science? (Consider examples ideas, motivations, methods and institutions.)
- Discuss the relationship of science and religion in the emergence of modern science (ideas, motivations, institutions).
- Comment on the similarities and differences between Boyle and the Indian wootz-makers on understanding matter and its transformations. Consider ideas, methods, institutions and cultural contexts. [You may elect to write this as an imaginary dialogue between Boyle and the wootzmaker.]
- Comment on the similarities and differences between Galileo (and/or Tycho) and the builders of the Big Horn Medicine Wheel on astronomy. Consider ideas, methods, institutions and cultural contexts. [You may elect to write this as an imaginary dialogue between Galileo and the native American.]
- Discuss how popular images of Galileo's trial are misinformed and consider why, if the information is available, the popular image persists (delving deeper than your own team's work, and considering alternative perspectives). Comment on the larger-scale context of the value of a historical perspective and how it shapes current perspectives, and perhaps how your own perspective has changed.
- Comment on the similarities and differences between Galen and William Harvey on the heart and blood system. Consider ideas, methods, institutions and cultural contexts. [You may elect to write this as an imaginary dialogue between Galen and Harvey.]
- Comment on the similarities and differences between the early Chinese and William Gilbert on magnets and the compass. Consider ideas, methods, institutions and cultural contexts. [You may write this as a dialogue between Gilbert and a Chinese thinker.]
- Contrast the "maps" of history from the perspectives of retrospect and prospect. Discuss the significance of historical perspective, using at least 3 cases (including one early, one modern).
- [for teachers:] Comment on cases in this course in the context of "myth-conceptions".
- Discuss Turnbull's view [Exh. 11] of scientific theories as maps, using at least 3 cases from the emergence of modern science. Consider, too, how writing history is mapmaking and what this may imply.
- Discuss the view that modern science is gendered due to its foundations in the 1600s. Use examples from several case studies.
appropriate words, including subject-verb agreement
occasional typos or minor "oops"
Clear communication includes at least the following:
Any sentence that does not meet these standards will be omitted when evaluating your work.
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